Sara Malik

Dept. Of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science



Sara is an Electrical Engineering student entering her fourth year at Lassonde. She is working under the supervision of Dr. Hany Farag. Sara’s project is to develop new modelling exercises for battery electric transit bus (e-bus) to investigate its operation feasibility and integration with utility grids in a small fleet size. Specifically, she will be conducting simulations using PSCAD, an advanced power electronic simulation software, to design the required infrastructure of the charging station to power the e-buses, which will be integrated with the grid station. By the end of summer, Sara is hoping to have a better understanding of the dc fast chargers, and their power electronic interfaces. This is important because Sara is planning to pursue graduate studies in the field of power electronics, and by completing this research project she will obtain valuable experience that will help in her future studies


Estimation of the Energy Consumption of Battery-Based Electric Transit Buses

Several E-bus manufactures provide data about the bus battery packs capacity; the range of the E-bus, and the rate of energy consumption of the battery in KWh/Km. Such data doesn’t take into account several factors that might significantly affect the rate of energy consumption of E-buses e.g., bus loading, traffic flow, route topology, weather conditions and driving behaviour.  Hence, appropriate models need to be developed to analyze the rate of energy consumption under different operating conditions. These models will help assessing the operation feasibility and the required charge scheduling of E-buses. 

In order to estimate the energy consumption of E-buses, two different software platforms are being used in this project: Advisor and PSCAD. ADVISOR is a MATLAB based simulation program for rapid analysis of the performance and fuel economy of full-electric powertrains. PSCAD, is an advanced power electronics simulation software. Using these two software platforms, the power consumption of the E-bus can be monitored with respect to time on different route topologies. The current stage of my research is to be able to build the simulation model of E-buses in the two simulation platforms and to compare the results.

Furthermore, another part of this project is to design the charging stations required to power E-bus transit systems. The design is tested under different municipal transit systems in Ontario cities. The design will be conducted under two scenarios: 1) when average energy consumption rate is used, and 2) when a detailed energy consumption rate (obtained from ADVISOR/PSCAD) is used. A comparison between the two scenarios